UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge – UP Board Guide


UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions

UP Board Class 9 Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge InText Questions and Answers

Activity and In-text Questions

In-text Question (Page No. 30)

Question 1.
Discuss the following issues related to poverty :
Landlessness, unemployment, size of families, illiteracy, poor health/malnutrition, child labour, helplessness.
Answer:
The following issues are relate to poverty :
(1) Landlessness: Landless labourer is the second name of poverty. They generally belong to depressed section of the society. They get very low wages for a day’s hard work.
(2) Unemployment: When the labour force of the country remains idle and unutilized because of unemployment, the level of income and purchasing power goes down and poverty increases.
(3) Size of families : When the size of the family is big, the family income becomes short to fulfil even the basic requirements of the family members. Thus, they become poor.
(4) Illiteracy : Illiteracy and poverty depend on each other. Due to poverty, parents are unable to spend money on the education of their children. On the other hand, illiteracy is a major cause of poverty.
(5) Poor health/malnutrition : Poverty causes poor health and malnutrition of the people. They have no access to nutritive food and healthcare.
(6) Child labour: The low income of parents, i.e., poverty forces the children to work and supplement the family income.
(7) Helplessness: Due to poverty, the people are helpless. They are forced to do odd jobs for very low income.

Let’s Discuss (Page No. 32)

Discuss the following :

Question 1.
Why do different countries use different poverty lines ?
Answer:
(1) What is necessary for satisfying basic minimum needs is different from time-to-time and from country to country. So, different countries use different poverty lines.
(2) Poverty lines vary with time and place. Every country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms.
(3) For example, the poverty line in the U.S.A. would be significantly different from that in India as average person is able to afford a much higher level of living in the United States. A car is considered to be a necessary good in America while in India it is considered a luxury good. ’

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 2.
What do you think would be the “minimum necessary level” in your locality ?
Answer:
(1) Since I belong to one of the poorest states in India, so food, clothing and housing are our basic needs.
(2) A significant portion of our locality, particularly the people belonging to scheduled castes and landless agricultural labourers, are unable to manage sufficient food for their families.
(3) They live in kuchcha huts made up of mud and straw on the outskirts of the village.
(4) They are hardly able to buy new clothes once in a few years. They have no access to healthcare when they fall ill. A major portion of the children do not go to school. They work as child labourers and supplement their family income. Even shoes and slippers, soap and oil are a luxury for the most of the families living in our locality.
(5) On the other hand, some people are very rich so the prices of necessary goods are high. Hence, the “minimum necessary level” in terms of money for our locality should be Rs. 1,000 per month for a person.

UP Board Class 9 Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge Textbook Questions and Answers

Exercises Of Ncert (Page No. 40)

Question 1.
Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India.
Or
How is the poverty line in India determined ? Explain the methods. (2012-48033)
Or
By whom and how is poverty line estimated in India ? (2O16-0SSW7H6; 2014-A8ITS12)
Answer:
Estimation of the poverty line in India :
(1) A common method used to measure poverty is based on income and consumption levels.
(2) A minimum level of food requirement and other basic needs such as clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical requirements, etc., are determined for subsistence.
(3) These are then calculated in terms of money required to consume them by multiplying physical quantities by their prices in rupees.
(4) Such a consumption expenditure determines the poverty line. For the year 2011-12, the poverty line for a person was fixed at ?816 per month in rural areas and 1,000 for the urban areas.
(5) The poverty line is estimated by the NSSO in India.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 2.
Do you think that present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?
Answer:
Yes, I think that the present methodology of poverty estimation in India is appropriate.
(1) Our country is an under-developed country. So, the minimum requirements must include day-to-day necessary needs of the human beings first.
(2) Even today, a significant portion of our population (22%) is not able to manage two square meals a day. Human beings cannot survive without food. So, the present formula for food requirement while estimating the poverty line is the most appropriate, which is based on the desired calorie requirement.
(3) Since people living in rural areas do more physical work, so calorie requirements in these areas are considered to be higher than the urban areas.

Question 3.
Describe poverty trends in India since 1973.
Answer:
(1) There is substantial decline in poverty ratio in India from about 55 per cent in 1973 to 45 per cent in 1993-94.
(2) Further, there has been substantial decline in poverty ratios in India to 37.2% in 2004-05.
(3) The proportion of people below poverty line further came down to 22% in 2011-12.
(4) The latest estimates indicate a significant reduction in the number of poor to about 270 million i.e., 27 crores in 2011-12.
(5) The number of poor declined from 407.1 million in 2004-05 to 270 million in 2011-12 with an average annual decline of 2.2 percentage points during 2004-05 to 2011-12.

Question 4.
Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India.
Or
What are the causes of poverty in India ? (Annual Exam. (Delhi), 2008)
Highlight any three major reasons that are responsible for poverty in India. (2016-8BJGMDQ, H4MDF9A, T08AYGY, WJHL19G)
Or
Explain the historic reasons of poverty in India. (2016-0LWZS7O, 9AGOTXP, 070WHIF, N9PFPSM, NQLRJ3Q)
Answer:
(1) One of the historical reasons is the low level of economic development under the British colonial administration. The policies of the colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textile.
(2) The low rate of growth is one of the important reasons. This resulted in less job opportunities and low growth rates of incomes. This was accompanied by high growth rate of population.
(3) Lack of land resources has been one of the major causes of poverty in India. Land reforms which aimed at redistribution of assets in rural areas have not been implemented properly and effectively by most of the state governments.
(4) Effects of irrigation and Green Revolution were limited to some parts of India.
(5) Backwardness in agriculture is also an important reason. People mostly use old traditional methods of farming. This requires much labour and time and gives low productivity.
(6) Industries were not able to provide enough jobs. There were huge income inequalities.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 5.
Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India.
Answer:
(1) (i) Poor people of Scheduled Castes.
(ii) Poor people of Scheduled Tribes.
(iii) Agricultural labourers and casual labourers.
(iv) Backward class people, elderly people, women, children, physically and mentally challenged people.

(2) (i) In India, caste system has many ill effects. In this system people from such communities are excluded from equal opportunities and facilities that others enjoy.
(ii) Illiteracy is one of the causes. They are mostly illiterate. When they migrate to the towns, they work in factories, at the shops etc. The factory owners and shopkeepers exploit them.
(iii) They (SCs, STs) are usually landless. They work as labourers in the field. They are not paid enough.
(iv) They celebrate festivals and do other social activities. For this, they take money from money-lenders. Moneylenders exploit them and they become victim of indebtedness.

Question 6.
Give an account of inter-state disparities in poverty in India. (2016-CP4MJQ1, CBSE, 2011, SA2, 25/BI, 21/BI)
Or
Give glimpse of inter state disparities of poverty in India in three points. (CBSE-2011-SA2, 29/BI)
Answer:
(1) The success rate of reducing poverty varies from state to state. Poverty is still a serious problem in some of the states such as Odisha, Bihar, U. P. etc.
(2) In many states and Union Territories, the poverty ratio is less than the national average. There is a significant decline of poverty in Kerala and Himachal Pradesh.
(3) Bihar and Odisha continue to be the two poorest states with poverty ratio of 33.7% and 32.6% respectively. Illiteracy, social backwardness etc. are the causes.
(4) States like Punjab and Haiyana have traditionally succeeded in reducing poverty with the help of high agricultural growth rates.
(5) Kerala has focused more on human resources development while in west Bengal, land reform measures have helped in reducing poverty.

Question 7.
Describe global poverty trends. (2016-CYQ7DBD)
Answer:
The data on global poverty are showing following trends :
(1) The proportion of poor people is extremely high in developing countries.
(2) According to international poverty line, population living on less than $1.90 per day in developing countries has fallen from 36% in 1990 to 10% in 2015.
(3) Despite a substantial reduction in global poverty, it is marked with great regional differences.
(4) Poverty declined substantially in China and South-East Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investments in human resource development. Number of poors in China declined from 88.3% in 1981 to 14.7% in 2008 to 0.7% in 2015.
(5) In South Asian countries such as India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan the decline has also been rapid i.e., from 34% in 2005 to 16.2% in 2013.
(6) In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty declined from 51% in 2005 to 41% in 2015.
(7) Poverty has resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 8.
Describe current government strategy of poverty alleviation.
Or
Describe any two important poverty alleviation programmes currently being implemented in India. (2011-21/A1,29/A1)
Answer:
Following are the major poverty alleviation programmes initiated or implemented by the government of India :
(1) Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Yozana (PMRY)
(i) This programme was launched in 1993.
(ii) It is aimed at providing self-employment opportunity to educated unemployed youth in the rural and urban areas.
(iii) Under this programme, scheduled banks provide loans at a lower interest rate to start small business and set up industries.

(2) Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP)
(i) This programme was launched in 1995.
(iii) The aim of the programme is to create self-employment opportunity in rural areas and small towns.
(iii) A target for creating 25 lakh new jobs has been set for this programme under the Tenth Five Year plan.

(3) Swamajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yozana (SGSY)
(i) This scheme was launched in 1999.
(ii) This programme aims at bringing the rural poor families above the poverty line.
(iii) To achieve this goal, it organises them into Self-Help Groups (SHGs) through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy.

(4) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana (PMGY)
(i) This programme was launched in 2000.
(ii) Under this programme, the central government provides additional assistance to the state government for improving basic services in the village.
(iii) The basic services covered under this programme are primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification.

(5) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA)
(i) This Act was passed in September 2005.
(ii) This Act is now renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA).
(iii) This act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household to ensure livelihood security in rural areas.
(iv) It is also aimed at sustainable development to address the cause of draught, deforestation and soil erosion.
(v) One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women. {vi) The scheme provided employment to 220 crores person days of employment to 4.78 crore households.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

(6) Antyodaya Anna Yozana (AAY)
(i) This scheme was launched in December 2000.
(ii) One crore of the poorest among the BPL families were covered under the targeted PDS.
(iii) 25 kg of foodgrains were made available to each eligible family at a highly subsidised rate of? 2 per kg for wheat and ? 3 per kg for rice.
(iv) This quantity has been enhanced from 25 kg to 35 kg with effect from April 2002. *
(v) Now, almost two crore families are covered under this scheme.

Question 9.
Answer the following questions briefly :
(i) What do you understand by human poverty?
(ii) Who are the poorest of the poor?
(iii) What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 ? (Annual Exam. (Delhi), 2009)
Answer:
(i) Suppose a person named Soman works in a factory as a daily wage worker. He earns Rs. 9800 a month. He lives with his wife and four children. His wife works as a part-time maid and elder son as a helper in a shop. They earn Rs. 1500 and Rs. 1300 respectively. With this little income they live in a one-room rented house and manage only two square meals a day. None of the children go to school. They have only two pairs of clothes each. All children are undernourished. They have no money for treatment in the case of illness. Thus, Soman is said to be living in poverty.
(ii) (1) Poor people of scheduled caste and scheduled tribes.
(2) Agricultural labour households and casual labour households.
(3) Backward class people, aged, women, children, physically and mentally challenged people.
(iii) See Q. No. 8(5) Page No. 394.

Topicwise Questions Introduction

1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)

Question 1.
Who is consideredl as poor ?
(a) Landlords
(b) Landless labourer
(c) A rich farmer
(d) Businessman (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 08/Cl)
Answer:
(b) Landless labourer

Question 2.
Who advocated that India would be truly independent only when the poorest of its people becomes free of human suffering ?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Indira Gandhi
(c) Jawahar Lai Nehru
(d) Subhash Chandra Bose (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 04/A1)
Answer:
(a) Mahatma Gandhi

Question 3.
Mahatma Gandhi always insisted that India would be truly independent only when: (2012-CBSE-SA-II, 48014)
(a) All the persons have equal opportunities.
(b) There is no disparity between rich and poor.
(c) The poorest of its people becomes free of human sufferings.
(d) All are equal before the laws.
Answer:
(c) The poorest of its people becomes free of human sufferings

3/5 Marks Questions

Question 4.
Describe the poor people that we come across daily. (2016-HXY66CZ, M5MZ7SB, QE84530, WJHL19G)
Answer:
(1) In our daily life, we come across many people who we think are poor.
(2) They could be landless labourers in villages or people living in overcrowded jhuggis in cities.
(3) They could be daily wage workers at construction sites or child workers in dhabas.
(4) They could also be beggars with children in tatters.
(5) We see poverty all around us. In fact, every fourth person in India is poor.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 5.
“Poverty is a curse upon humanity.” Justify the statement. (2016-3N8J6MA)
Answer:
Poor people have to go through various human sufferings. No body would like to live in poverty. For the following reasons we can say that poverty is a curse upon humanity :
(1) It leads to hunger and lack of shelter. They live in unhygienic conditions and invite host of diseases.
(2) They lack in medical facilities and die of diseases in want of timely and proper treatment.
(3) Poor people are in a situation in which they are ill-treated at almost all places. Each time they are left with scars on their spirit of self-respect.
(4) They live with the sense of helplessness.
(5) Poor parents are not able to send their children to school. This leaves them unawakened and unaware. The children of poor people have to earn their livelihood, even then they are not able to get their two square meals.

Poverty As Seen By Social Scientists

1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)

Question 1.
Which one of the following is not a major indicator of poverty ? (2012-CBSE-SA-II, 48041)
(a) Level of income
(b) Level of consumption
(c) Lack of shelter
(d) Literacy level
Answer:
(d) Literacy level

Question 2.
Which of the following is not a social indicator of poverty as seen by social scientists ? (2012-CBSE-SA-II, 48013)
(a) Illiteracy level
(b) Lack of general resistance due to malnutrition
(c) Lack of job opportunities
(d) Owning of a car
Answer:
(d) Owning of a car.

3/5 Marks Questions

Question 3.
Describe the facts of poverty as seen by social scientists.
Or
List the indicators of poverty. (2016-63JO0MP, ONEOSIT, 63JOOMP, R60MV4B, W8LHXTM)
Or
Describe how the poverty is seen by social scientists. (2016-2KMVXAR; 2014-V86WYD9)
Answer:
Apart from levels of income and consumption, following indicators are used by social scientists to look at poverty :
(1) Illiteracy level: It is a situation where parents are unable to send their children to school.
(2) Lack of access to healthcare : It is a situation in which sick people cannot afford treatment.
(3) Lack of access to drinking water : It means lack of safe and clean drinking water facilities.
(4) Lack of job opportunity: It means no availability of regular job opportunity.
(5) Lack of general resistance : It means lack of general resistance due to malnutrition.
(6) Lack of sanitation: It means cleaning of our surrounding.

Question 4.
State how social exclusion can be used in understanding poverty in India ? (2016-ONCL2PF)
Answer:
(1) According to the concept of social exclusion, poverty can be seen in terms of the poor having to live only in a poor surrounding with other poor people, excluded from enjoying social equality of better-off people in better surroundings.
(2) This is a process through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others enjoy.
(3) For example, the caste system in India in which people belonging to certain castes, are excluded from equal opportunities.
(4) Vulnerability to poverty is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities e.g., members of a backward caste or individuals e.g., a widow or a physically handicapped person, of becoming or remaining poor in the coming years.
(5) Vulnerability is determined by the options available to different communities for finding an alternative living in terms of assets, education, health and job opportunities. In fact, vulnerability describes the greater probability of being more adversely affected than other people when bad times come for everybody.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Poverty Line

1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)

Question 1.
What is the accepted average calories requirement in India per person per day in rural areas ?
(a) 2100 calories
(b) 2200 calories
(c) 2300 calories
(d) 2400 calories (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 25/BI; 2012-48006)
Answer:
(d) 2400 calories

Question 2.
What is the accepted calories requirement in urban areas ?
(а) 2000 cal / person / day
(b) 2100 cal / person / day
(c) 2300 cal / person / day
(d) 2400 cal / person / day (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 16/A1)
Answer:
(b) 2100 cal/person/day

Question 3.
In year 2011-12 what was the average Indian poverty ratio ?
(a) 15%
(b) 43%
(c) 22%
(d) 47% (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 32/BI)
Answer:
(c) 22%

3/5 Marks Questions

Question 4.
“Poverty line may vary with time and place.” Support the statement with example. (2014-SS-A-A1)
Or
Why does the poverty line vary with time and place ? (2016-63JO0MP; 2014-K9O1RGL)
Answer:
(1) A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given ‘minimum level’ necessary to fulfil basic needs.
(2) What is necessary to satisfy basic needs is different at different times and in different countries.
(3) Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms.
(4) For example, a person not having a car in the USA may be considered poor. But, in India, owning of a car is still considered a luxury.
(5) While determining the poverty line in India, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical requirement, etc. are determined for subsistence.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 5.
What is poverty line ? Give the income for poverty line fixed for the rural and urban areas in India according to the year 2011-12. (2012-48039; 2011-25/A1)
Answer:
(1) (i) Poverty line is an imaginary line of demarcation by which we can understand who are able to fulfil their basic needs of life.
(ii) Aperson is considered poor ifhis or her income or consumption level falls below a given ‘minimum level’ necessary to fulfil basic needs. This minimum level is considered as a poverty line.
(2) (d) The poverty line fixed for the rural and urban areas for the year 2011-12 was ? 816 and ? 1,000 per person per month respectively.
It, is higher in urban areas because of high prices of many essential products in urban areas.
(ii) The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in the rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in the urban areas.
It is high in the rural areas because of more physical work done by the rural people.

Poverty Estimates

1 Mark Question (Objective Type)

Question 1.
Which ohe of the following methods is used to measure poverty ? (20127CBSE-SA-II, 48015)
(a) Income or consumption levels
(b) Expenditure or investment levels
(c) Income or saving levels
(d) Economic or social conditions
Answer:
(a) Income or consumption levels.

3/5 Marks Question

Question 2.
Give a brief account of poverty in India. (2016-QE84530; 2014-U4GTTUR, K5N6IFY)
Answer:
(1) Poverty means hunger and lack of shelter. These are roughly 270 million people in India live in poverty. This means that India has the largest single concentration of the poor in the world.
(2) For the year 2011-12, the poverty line in India for a person was fixed at ? 816 per month for the rural areas and ? 1,000 for the urban areas.
(3) There has been a substantial decline in poverty ratios in India from about 45 in 1993-94 to 37.2% in 2004-05.
(4) The proportion of people below poverty line further came down to 22% in 2011-12.
(5) If this trend continues, people below poverty line may come down to 20% in the next few years.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Vulnerable Groups

1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)

Question 1.
The most vulnerable social groups for poverty are :
(a) Scheduled Tribes .
(6) Urban casual labourers
(c) Rural agricultural labourers
(d) Scheduled Castes (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 21/BI)
Answer:
(a) Scheduled Tribes

Question 2.
Which category does not come under the category of urban poor ?
(a) The casual workers
(b) The unemployed
(c) The shopkeeper
(d) Rickshaw pullers (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 06/A1)
Answer:
(c) The shopkeeper.

3/5 Marks Questions

Question 3.
Which social and economic groups are more vulnerable to poverty ? (2016-6QDR56Y)
Answer:
(1) Social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty are Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe households.
(2) Similarly, among the economic groups, the most vulnerable groups are the rurtl agricultural labour households and the urban casual labour households.
(3) 43% of Scheduled Tribes and 34% of casual labourers in urban areas are not able to meet their basic needs. Similarly, about 34% of casual agricultural labourers in rural areas and 29% of Scheduled Castes are also poor.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 4.
Mention the statistics relatedi to poverty problem of the vulnerable groups. (2016-9AGOTXP)
Answer:
(1) The proportion of people below poverty line is not the same for all social groups and economic categories in India.
(2) Although, the average for people below poverty line for all groups in India is 22, while 43 out of 100 people belonging to Scheduled Tribes are not able to meet their basic needs.
(3) Similarly, 34% of casual labourers in urban areas are below poverty line.
(4) About 34% of rural agricultural labourers and 29% of Scheduled Castes are also poor.
(5) Most importantly, being a landless casual wage labour household in the socially disadvantaged social groups of the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes is at the double-disadvantaged position.

Inter-State Disparities

1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)

Question 1.
Which of the following states has the poverty ratio below the national average ?
(a) West Bengal
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Assam
(d) Maharashtra (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 29/BI)
Answer:
(d) Maharashtra

Question 2.
Which one of the following states in India has focused more on human resource development ?
(a) Punjab
(b) Karnataka
(c) Kerala
(d) Tamil Nadu (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 04/A1)
Answer:
(c) Kerala

Question 3.
Which of the two states of India are the poorest ? (2012-CBSE-SA-II, 48030)
(a) Odisha and Punjab
(b) Bihar and Assam
(c) Odisha and Bihar
(d) Punjab and Haryana
Answer:
(c) Odisha and Bihar

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

3/5 Marks Question

Question 4.
Give one most responsible factor for the reduction of poverty in each of the following states :
(1) Punjab
(2) Kerala
(3) West Bengal
(4) Andhra Pradesh. (2011-18/A1)
Or
Explain the principal measures taken in Punjab, Kerala and West Bengal to reduce poverty. (2016-070WHIF)
Answer:
The most responsible factors or principal measures for the reduction of poverty in each of the following states are as follow :
(1) Punjab : The government has traditionally succeeded in reducing poverty with the help of high agricultural growth rate. This is among the states which was mostly benefited due to Green Revolution in the decades of 1970s and afterwards.
(2) Kerala : It is one of states having highest literacy rate. The government has been focusing on human resource development.
(3) West Bengal: During the long reign of Communist Party, land reform measures were taken at large scale. This benefited both the farmers and the agricultural labourers.
(4) Andhra Pradesh: Here, the public distribu-tion of foodgrains could have been responsible for the improvement in poverty scenario.

Global Poverty Scenario

1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)

Question 1.
Poverty has resurfaced in :
(а) Latin American countries
(b) Sub-Saharan countries
(c) Russia
(d) None of the above (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 34/A1)
Answer:
(c) Russia

Question 2.
What was the percentage of poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2005 ? (2012-CBSE-SA-II, 48005)
(a) 41
(b)46
(c) 56
(d) 51
Answer:
(c) 56

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 3.
Which country of the world has largest percentage of population below $ 1.90 a day according to the World Bank Report, 2001 ?
(a) Bangladesh
(b) Sri Lanka
(c) Nigeria
(d) India
Answer:
(c) Nigeria

3/5 Marks Question

Question 4.
Describe the global poverty scenario as studied by the World Bank. (2012-48014)
Answer:
Following are the features of the global poverty scenario :
(1) The proportion of people in developing countries living in extreme economic poverty — defined by the World Bank as living on less than $ 1.90 per day – has fallen from 36 per cent in 1990 to 10 per cent in 2015.
(2) Poverty declined substantially in China and South-east Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resource development.
(3) In the countries of South Asia, the decline has not been rapid.
(4) In Sub-Saharan Africa poverty, in fact, declined from 51 per cent in 2005 to 41 per cent in 2015.
(5) In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same.
(6) Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia, where officially it was non-existent earlier.

Causes Of Poverty

1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)

Question 1.
Which of the following is not a major reason for the lack of effectiveness of targetted anti-poverty programmes ?
(а) Lack of proper implementation
(b) Lack of right targeting
(c) Overlapping of schemes
(d) All the above (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 18/A1)
Answer:
(d) All the above

Question 2.
Which of the following is not a valid reason for the poverty alleviation programme in India ?
(а) Lack of proper implementation
(b) Lack of right targeting
(c) Corruption at the highest level
(d) Overlapping of schemes (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 14/A1)
Answer:
(c) Corruption at the highest level

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 3.
Which one of the following issues is not related to poverty ? (2012-CBSE-SA-II, 48009)
(a) Literacy
(b) Unemployment
(c) Landlessness
(d) Size of the family
Answer:
(d) Size of the family

3/5 Marks Questions

Question 4.
Describe the contribution of Green Revolution to eradicate the poverty in India. (2016-5ELHVMY, 7LA1MBY)
Answer:
(1) Since the advent of Green Revolution in early 1970s, the country has avoided famine even during adverse weather conditions. It has made India self-sufficient in foodgrains during the last 50 years.
(2) It introduced the Indian farmer to the improved cultivation of wheat and rice, in particular by using HYV seeds. The same piece of land would now produce far larger quantities of foodgrains than was possible earlier.
(3) There was a large increase especially in the production of wheat. The success of wheat was later replicated in rice. The highest rate of growth has been achieved in Punjab and Haryana, where foodgrain production reached an all time high of 265 million tonnes in 2013-14.

Question 5.
How is regular growth of population a major cause of poverty ? Explain. (2016-VXS6KC8; 2011-06/A1)
Answer:
The regular growth of population is a main cause of poverty in the following ways : ‘
(1) Due to high population growth rate, pressure on resources will increase.
(2) Due to high rate of population growth, unemployment will increase.
(3) High population growth rate increases the rate of depletion of resources.
(4) Due to less income, the people belonging to below poverty line will increase.
(5) Low growth rate of incomes accompanied by a high growth rate of population make the growth rate of per capita income very low. And the failure of both the fronts : promotion of economic growth and population control perpetuated the cycle of poverty.

Question 6.
Mention any three factors which are responsible for large income inequalities. (2016-3N8J6MA)
Answer:
The factors which are responsible for large income inequalities are as under :
(1) One of the major reasons for huge income inequalities is the unequal distribution of land and other resources.
(2) Despite many policies, we have not been able to tackle tke issue in a meaningful manner.
(3) Major policy initiatives like land reforms which aimed at redistribution of assets in rural areas have not been implemented properly and effectively by most of the state governments.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Anti-Poverty Measures

1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)

Question 1.
In which year was MNREGA enacted ?
(a) 2005
(b) 2000
(c) 1999
(d) 1993 (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 29/A1.16/B1)
Answer:
(a) 2005

Question 2.
Which of the following programmes was launched in the year of 2000 ?
(а) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
(b) Prime Minister Rozgar Yozana
(c) Swamajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yozana
(d) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 04/BI)
Answer:
(d) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana

Question 3.
For how many days MNREGA provides employment ?
(a) 70
(b) 80
(c) 90
(d) 100 (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 08/A1)

3/5 Marks Questions

Question 4.
Give the main features of Rural Employment Generation Programme. (2016-V50XN3N)
Or
Explain the Rural Employment Generation Programme started by the government to reduce poverty. (2016-8NUTCNT)
Answer:
The main features of REGP are as follows :
(1) Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) was launched in 1995.
(2) The aim of the programme is to create self-employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns.
(3) A target for creating 25 lakh new jobs has been set for the programme under the Tenth Five Year Plan.

Question 5.
Poverty is the root cause of many evils. Suggest some measures to be taken by government to eradicate poverty.
Or
Suggest any three ways to reduce poverty in India. (2016-5G7486T, 8BJGMDQ, 8NUTCNT)
Answer:
Following are the measures that the government should take in order to eradicate poverty :
(1) Government should take steps to achieve higher economic growth rates. It should focus on the development of infrastructure projects related to transport, energy production and distribution, education, health, etc.
(2) Since in India, most people depend on agriculture and it has been a sector with a per-formance much below expectation, the government should make programmes to develop this sector.
(3) Government should run various targeted anti-poverty programmes timely and effectively.
(4) There is an urgent need to curb high population growth rate.
(5) There is reasonable need to promote business groups to establish eco-friendly industries in the rural areas so that poor people migrating to town and cities could find jobs at their place. There is need to take steps to lessen the gap of income inequalities.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 6.
‘There is a strong link between economic growth and poverty reduction.’ Explain the statement. (2012-48022)
Or
What is the relation between economic growth and poverty reduction ? (2016-CYQ7DBD)
Answer:
(1) The higher growth rates have helped significantly in the reduction of poverty. Since 1980s, India’s economic growth was one of the fastest in the world.
(2) The growth rate rose from the average of about 3.5 per cent a year in the 1970s to about 6 per cent during the 1980s and 1990s.
(3) The higher growth rates have helped significantly in the reduction of poverty. Therefore, it is becoming clear that there is a strong link between economic growth and poverty reduction.
(4) Economic growth widens opportunities and provides the resources needed to invest in human development.
(5) This also encourages people to send their children, including girls, to schools in the hope of getting better economic returns from investing in education.

The Challenges Ahead

3/5 Marks Questions

Question 1.
Describe the challenges in the way of poverty alleviation in India. (2012-1017)
Or
Mention the challenges ahead in the field of poverty in India. (2016-6JJ4ZVP)
Answer:
Following are the challenges before India with respect to poverty alleviation:
(1) Wide disparities in poverty are visible between rural and urban areas and among different states.
(2) Certain social and economic groups are more vulnerable to poverty.
(3) The official definition of poverty captures only a limited part of what poverty really means to people. It is about a ‘minimum’ subsistence level of living rather than a ‘reasonable’ level of living. That is, it ignores the aspect of education, shelter, healthcare, job security, self-confidence, etc.

Question 2.
“Poverty reduction is expected to mark better progress in the next ten to fifteen years.” Justify the statement. (2016-ONEOSIT; 2014-6U6BVEU, 5VP6UB4)
Answer:
(1) Possibility of higher economic growth: Significant reduction in poverty would be possible mainly due to higher economic growth that is increasing almost decade after decade.
(2) Increasing elementary education: Our government has laid stress on universal free elementary education.
(3) Declining population growth: According to census 2011, there is a declining trend in population growth in our country.
(4) Empowerment of the women : Recent studies show that there has been significant increase in empowerment of the women in our country.
(5) Empowerment of weaker sections : Also, there has been significant change in status of socially and economically weaker sections of society.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 3.
Differentiate between ‘minimum subsistence level of living’ and ‘a reasonable level of living’. (2016-8NUTCNT)
Answer:
Difference between ‘minimum subsistence level of living’ and ‘a reasonable level of living’ :
Minimum subsistence level of living :
(1) It is a confined concept.
(2) It describes only a limited part of what poverty really means to people.
(3) For example, while determining the poverty line in India, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical requirements, etc. are determined for subsistence. Hera, owning of a car is still considered a luxury.

Reasonable level of living :
(1) It is a broad concept.
(2) It indicates about a standard level of living.
(3) For example, a person not having a car in the United States may be considered poor.



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