UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design – UP Board Guide


UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions

UP Board Class 9 Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design InText Questions and Answers

Activity and In-text Questions

In-text Question (Page No. 35)

Question 1.
Do most leaders fulfil their election promises ?
Answer:
No, most leaders do not fulfil their election promises. But the leaders, whose party wins the election and forms the government, try to fulfil those promises that will give them popularity among the voters. However, all the promises are not fulfilled.

Check Your Progress (Page No. 35)

Question 1.
Jagdeep and Navpreet read this story and drew the following conclusions. Can you say which of these are right or wrong (or if the information given in the story is inadequate to call them right or wrong) ?
(1) Elections can lead to changes in the policy of the government.
(2) The Governor invited Devi Lai to become the Chief Minister because he was impressed with his speeches.
(3) People are unhappy with every ruling party and vote against it in the next election.
(4) The party that wins the elections forms the government.
(5) This election led to a lot of economic development in Haryana.
(6) The Congress Chief Minister need not have resigned after his party lost elections.
Answer:
(1) right
(2) wrong
(3) inadequate information
(4) right
(5) inadequate information
(6) wrong.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

In-text Question (Page No. 37)

Ah! So elections are like exams where politicians and parties know if they have passed or failed.

Question 1.
But who are the examiners ?
Answer:
Voters are the examiners.

Read the Cartoon (Page no. 38)

Read the two cartoons shown on page 38 of the T.B. carefully.

Question 1.
Write the message of each of them in your own words.
Answer:
(1) The cartoon shown on the left gives the message that the knowledge, ideas, planning and promises of a candidate are useless if he/she does not have the votes to win the election. So, the emphasis is on votes.
(2) The cartoon shown on the right gives the message that during an election campaign, contesting candidates make plenty of promises but they are unable to fulfil all of them. As a result, electorates chase them to fulfil their promises.

In-text Question (Page No. 40)

Question 1.
Like in Panchayats, should we not have at least one* third seats in the Parliament and assemblies, reserved for women ?
Answer:
The women constitute 50 per cent of our society, so at least one-third of the seats in the Lok Sabha and assemblies should be reserved for their proper representation. They deserve to be given chance to uplift the status of women through the parliamentary platform.

In-text Question (Page No. 41)

See the map shown in T.B., Page No. 41 and answer the following questions:

Question 1.
What is the number of Lok Sahha constituencies in your state and the neighbouring two states ?
Answer:
Student, do it yourself.

Question 2.
Which states have more than 30 Lok Sabha constituencies ?
Answer:
The states which have more than 30 Lok Sabha constituencies are : Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.

Question 3.
Why do some states have such a large number of constituencies ?
Answer:
Some states have large number of constituencies because of their population. Here, voters are in large numbers.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

Question 4.
Why are some constituencies small in area while others are very big ?
Answer:
The area of each constituency is fixed on the basis of number of the voters. The area does not matter. If a smaller area has equal number of voters as a big area, both will be treated as a constituency.

Question 5.
Are the constituencies reserved for the SCs and STs evenly spread all over the entire country or, are there more in some areas ?
Answer;
The constituencies are reserved for the SCs and STs on the basis of the distribution of their population. So, the constituencies reserved for the SCs and STs are not evenly spread all over the entire country but, are more in some areas.

In-text Question (Page No. 42)

Question 1.
Why are the candidates required to give a detailed statement of their property ?
Answer:
According to the judgement given by the Supreme Court, the electorates have the right to know the following information pertaining to the candidates :
(1) Educational qualification.
(2) Assets movable and immovable.
(3) Criminal background.
(4) Debts to financial public institutions.
(5) Government dues.
(6) Tax status, income and wealth.

Cheek Your Progress (Page No. 44)

Question 1.
Match the following features of our electoral system ‘ with the principles they reflect.
Answer:
Principles Features of electoral system
UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design - 2

In-text Question (Page No. 46)

Question 1.
Why are party agents present in the polling booth and counting centre ?
Answer:
Party agents are present in the polling booth and counting centre :
(1) To check the bogus voting in the polling booth by any voter or political party.
(2) To check and respond to any unfair means adopted in counting of votes at the counting centre.

In-text Questions (Page No. 46)

Question 1.
What is the percentage of voters who had actually casted their votes ?
Answer:
57.53 per cent of total voters casted their votes.

Question 2.
To win an election, is it necessary for a person to secure more than half the votes polled?
Answer:
No, the candidate who secures the highest number of votes from a constituency is declared elected.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

Check Your Progress (Page No. 46)

Question 1.
Identify the fair and the unfair electoral practices among the following:
(1) A minister flags off a new train in his constituency a week before polling day.
(2) A candidate promises that she will get a new train for her constituency if she is elected.
(3) Supporters of a candidate take the voters to a temple and make them take an oath that they will vote for him.
(4) The supporters of a candidate distribute blankets in slums in return for a promise for vote.
Answer:
(1) Unfair electoral practice.
(2) Fair electoral practice.
(3) Unfair electoral practice.
(4) Unfair electoral practice.

In-text Questions (Page No. 47)

Question 1.
Why does the Election Commission .have so much powers ?
Answer:
The Election Commission has so much powers to check the malpractices and make the elections free and fair.

Question 2.
Is this good for democracy ?
Answer;
Yes, the Election Commission Having so much power is good for democracy.

Check Your Progress (Page No. 48)

Question 1.
Read the following headlines given below carefully and identify which powers are used by the Election Commission in each instance to ensure free and fair elections.
(1) EC issues notification constituting 14th Lok Sabha.
Answer:
EC takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections, from the announcement of elections to the declaration of results.

(2) EC tightens norms for poll expenses.
Answer:
EC regulates campaigns to ensure that every political party or candidate gets a fair and equal chance to compete. It also ensures that no party or candidate can spend more than Rs. 25 lakhs for election in a Lok Sabha constituency or Rs. 10 lakhs in an Assembly constituency.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

(3) EC to visit Gujarat again, review poll arrangements.
Answer:
During the election period, the EC can order the government to follow some guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of governmental powers to enhance its chances to win elections, or to transfer some government officials.

(4) HC asks EC to bar ‘criminal’ netas.
Answer:
EC takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections.

(5) EC shoots down HM advice on poll reforms.
Answer:
During the election period, the EC can order the government to follow some guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of the governmental powers to enhance its chances to win elections, or to transfer some government officials. The EC cannot work on the advice of the HM (Home Minister).

(6) Photo I-cards not mandatory in Bihar polls.
Answer:
EC takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections from the announcement of elections to the declaration of results. It also includes the powers relating to the identification of the Voters. *

(7) EC accepts new Haryana DGP.
Answer:
During the election period, the EC can .order the government to follow some guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of governmental powers to enhance its chances to win elections or to transfer some government officials.

(8) EC will seek power to censure political ads.
Answer:
EC implements the Code of Conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it.

(9) EC says no immediate plan to ban Exit Polls.
Answer:
EC takes decision&on eirery aspect of conduct and control of elections from the announcement of elections to the declaration of results. It also includes power regarding the Exit Polls.

(10) EC orders repoll in 398 more booths.
Answer:
EC takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections from the announcement of elections and order to repoll before the declaration of results.

(11) EC to keep closer eye on hidden poll costs.
Answer:
It implements election laws and the Code of Conduct to regulate campaigns so that every party or candidate gets a fair and \ equal chance to compete.

Check Your Progress (Page No. 51)

Question 1.
Here are some facts on Indian elections. Comment on each of these to say whether they reflect the strength or the weakness of our electoral system:
(1) The 16th Lok Sabha has 12 per cent women members.
(2) The Election Commission often refuses to accept the government’s advice about when the elections should be held.
(3) The 16 th Lok Sabha has more than 440 members whose assets are more than ? 1 crore.
(4) After losing an election, the Chief Minister said: “I respect the people’s verdict.”
Answer:
(1) It is the weakness of our electoral system which sends only 10 per cent women members to the Lok Sabha while the population of women is nearly 50 per cent of the total population.
(2) It is the strength of our electoral system which has given the power to the Election Commission to refuse or to accept the advice of the ruling party about the election dates.
(3) This is the weakness of our electoral system which does not give equal chance to both poor and rich. Candidates who are rich, have a better chance of winning than the poor.
(4) This is the strength of our electoral system which enjoys the faith of both the defeated and winning parties in the conduct of free and fair elections.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

UP Board Class 9 Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design Textbook Questions and Answers

Exercises Of Ncert (Page No. S2-54)

Question 1.
Which of the following statements about the reasons for conducting elections are false ?
(a) Elections enable people in judge the performance of the government.
(b) People select the representative of their choice in an election.
(c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary.
(d) People can indicate which policies they prefer.
Answer;
(c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary.

Question 2.
Which of these is not a good reason to say that Indian elections are democratic ?
(a) India has the largest number of voters in the world.
(b) India’s Election Commission is very powerful.
(c) In India, everyone above the age of 18 has a right to vote.
(d) In India, the losing parties accept the electoral verdict.
Answer:
(a) India has the largest number of voters in the world.

Question 3.
Match the following :
(a) It is necessary to keep the voters’ list up to date because – (i) there is a fair representation of all seotlons of our society;
(b) Some constituencies are reserved for SCa and STa so that – (ii) everyone has equal opportunity to elect their representative.
(c) Everyone has one and only one vote so that – (iii) all candidates must have a fair chance of competing In electioús.
(d) Party In power Is not allowed to use govern ment vehicles because – (iv) some people may have moved away from the area where they voted last.
Answer:
(a) – (iv)
(b) – (i)
(c) – (ii)
(d) – (iii)

Question 4.
List all the different election related activities mentioned in the chapter and arrange them in a time sequence, beginning with the first activity and ending with the last. Some of these activities are given below: releasing election manifestos; counting of votes; making of voters’ list; election campaign; declaration of election results; casting of votes; ordering of repoll; announcing election schedule; filing nomination.
Answer:
(1) Making of voters’ list
(2) announcing election schedule;
(3) filing nomination
(4) releasing election manifestos
(5) election campaign
(6) casting of votes
(7) counting of votes
(8) ordering of repoll
(9) declaration of election results.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

Question 5.
Surekha is an officer-in-charge of ensuring free and fair elections in an assembly constituency in a state. Describe what should she focus on for each of the following stages of election:
Answer:
(a) Election campaign: Surekha, as an officer-in-charge, should focus on regulating campaigns to ensure that every political party and candidate gets a fair and equal chance to compete. She should take steps to stop every party and candidate from :
– practising bribery or threatening the voters.
– making appeal to voters in the name of caste or religion.
– using government resources for election campaign.

(b) Polling day :
She should focus on conducting free and fair election at each and every booth of the state by taking some firm decisions to stop rigging or booth-capturing by any candidate or party.

(c) Counting day :
She should make security arrangements to stop any party from using unfair means to affect free and fair counting of the votes. She must be ready to face the-supporters of the defeated party and candidate.

Question 6.
The table below gives the proportion of different communities among the candidates who won elections to the US Congress. Compare these to the proportion of these communities in the population of the US. Based on this, would you suggest a system of reservations in the US Congress ? If yes, why and for which communities ? If no, why not ?
UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design - 1


Answer:
Yes, there must be a system of reservation in the US Congres8, because it will give equal representation to each and every community in proportion to its population.

Question 7.
Can we draw the following conclusions from the information given in this chapter ? Give two facts to support your position for each of these.
(а) Election Commission of India does not have enough powers to conduct free and fair elections in the country.
Answer:
No, the Election Commission of India has enough powers to conduct free and fair elections in the country for the following reasons :
(1) EC is not bound to follow the advice of the ruling party for conducting elections on a particular date.
(2) EC can stop the ruling party from using the government machineries for election campaigns.

(b) There is a high level of popular participation in the elections in our country.
Answer:
Yes. (1) The percentage of popular participation in the elections in our country is either constant or has increased in the last 15 years.
(2) The total percentage of those who participated in the last general election was 57, The percentage of SCs, STs and OBCs is more than the upper castes.

(c) It is very easy for the party in power to win an election.
Answer:
No, it is very tough for the party in power to win an election because :
(1) All the voters are usually angry with the ruling party for not fulfilling the promises it made.
(2) The opposition often raises the points about issues which the ruling party promised to work for, thus, affecting the general public.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

(d) Many reforms are needed to make our elections completely free and fair.
Answer:
Yes, there is a need of a number of reforms to make the elections completely free and fair because :
(1) Candidates and parties with a lot of money enjoy an unfair advantage over smaller parties and independents.
(2) Sometimes, candidates with criminal connections push others out of the electoral race and secure a ticket from major parties.

Question 8.
Chinappa was convicted for torturing his wife for dowry. Satbir was held* guilty of practising untouchability. The court did not allow either of them to contest elections. Does tibia decision go against the principles of democratic elections ?
Answer:
No, a person can be stopped from contesting elections if he/she is convicted for look serious criminal offences.

Question 9.
Here are some reports .Of electoral malpractices from different parts of the world. Is there anything that these countries can learn from India to improve their elections ? What would you suggest in each case ?
(a) During an election in Nigeria, the officer-in-charge of counting votes delibe-rately increased the Votes of one candidate and declared him elected. The court later found out that more than five lakh votes cast for one candidate were counted in favour of another.
Answer:
Yes. (1) The country can learn from the Indian practice of re-counting in front of all party agents in a doubtful case of counting.
(2) The officer who was in-charge of counting must be given severe punishment because, he had violated the democratic rights of the citizens.

(b) Just before elections in Fiji, a pamphlet was distributed warning the voters that a vote for former Prime Minister, Mahendra Choudhry will lead to bloodshed. This was a threat to voters of Indian origin.
Answer:
Yes. (1) Fiji can learn a lesson from India to improve its electoral system.
(2) There must be constitutional and legal laws to regulate such type of threats during election campaigns.

(c) In the US, each state has its own method of voting, its own procedure of counting and its own authority for conducting elections. Authorities in the state of Florida took many controversial decisions that favoured Mr. Bush in the Presidential elections in 2000. But, no one could change those decisions.
Answer:
Yes. (1) The United States can learn from India, the uniform system of voting, counting and conducting elections throughout the country.
(2) Mr. Bush was about to lose elections in 2000 but due to the judgement of the court in his favour, which was the weakness of the electoral system, he won the elections. There must be an independent election commission and judiciary in USA, as in India. ,

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

Question 10.
Here are some reports of malpractices in Indian elections. Identify what the problem in each case is. What should be done to correct the situation ?
(а) Following the announcement of elections, the minister promised to provide financial aid to reopen the closed sugar mill.
Answer:
(1) After the announcement of elections, if any minister declares any assistance on behalf of the government, it is the manipulation of the voters.
(2) There must be a law to ban the manipulation of voters by a minister on behalf of the government.

(b) Opposition parties alleged that their statements and campaign was not given due attention in Doordarshan and All India Radio.
Answer:
(1) Here, the opportunity of equal access to the electronic media for mass campaigning is involved.
(2) There must be an independent electronic media, i.e., Doordarshan and All India Radio should cover the election campaigns of all parties, whether it is a ruling or opposition party, in an impartial manner. All parties must be treated alike in this respect.

(c) An inquiry by the Election Commission showed that electoral rolls of a state contain name of 20 lakh fake voters.
Answer:
(1) This is a malpractice of the electoral system. Fake voters are registered for rigging the elections in favour of a particular party or candidate.
(2) There must be an independent system of registering the voters in the voters’ list and those who are involved in enlisting fake voters’ must be punished severely.

(d) The hoodlums of a political party were moving with guns, physically preventing supporters of other political parties to meet the voters and attacking meetings of other parties.
Answer:
(1) This is the criminalisation of politics.
(2) There must be an independent force armed with powers to stop this type of malpractice.

Question 11.
Ramesh was not in class when this chapter was being taught. He came the next day and repeated what he had heard from his father. Can you tell Ramesh what is wrong with these statements ?
(a) Women always vote the way men tell them. to. So what is the point of giving them the right to vote ?
Answer:
The right to vote is not related to the direction a person who seeks or follows to use this right. So, right to vote must be for every person without considering the dominance Of a particular sex.

(b) Party politics creates tension in society. Elections should be decided by consensus, not by competition.
Answer:
Party politics creates tension in society but there is little chance of a consensus in elections, generally. It is so because every candidate wants to occupy a seat of power, so there is no alternative to competition in electing a candidate.

(c) Only graduates should be allowed to stand as candidates for elections.
Answer:
No, only graduates cannot be allowed to stand as candidates for elections because, the majority of our voters are not graduates, so they will be deprived of their right to stand as candidates.

Topicwise Questions

3.1 Why Elections

1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)

Question 1.
Which of these is not a good reason to say that Indian elections are democratic ?
(а) In India, the parties which loose the elections also accept the electoral verdict.
(b) Election Commission of India is very powerful.
(c) Everyone above the age of 18 has a right to vote.
(d) India has the largest number of voters in the world. (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 25/BI)
Answer:
(d) India has the largest number of voters in the world.

Question 2.
Which of the following statements about the reasons for conducting elections is false ?
(а) Elections enable people to judge the performance of the government.
(b) People select the representative of their choice in an election.
(c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary.
(d) People can indicate which policies they prefer. (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 32/BI)
Answer:
(c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

Question 3.
Which of the following ^statements is against the democratic process of elections ?
(a) Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections.
(b) Elections must be held regularly immediately after the term is over.
(c) The right to vote should be given to the selected people only.
(d) Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner. (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 12/BI)
Answer:
(c) The right to vote should be given to the selected people only.

3/5 Marks Questions

Question 4.
Write any five demerits to have political competition. (2016-01A3E0X, RrtU15PT; 2015-1FQNRZN; 2014-L2MQUV2)
Or
Mention any three demerits of electoral competition. (2616-YS2Z7C2; 2015-2CYW1OX)
Answer:
(1) An electoral competition creates a sense of disunity and factionalism in every locality. to win electoral fights does not allow sensible be formulated.
(3) Some good people who may wish to serve the country do not enter this arena. They do not like the idea of being dragged into unhealthy competition.
(4) Candidates use to level personal allegations against their opponents. This way, they are doing character assassination which is both, immoral and illegal. Candidates ask for votes on communal and caste lines that leaves many scars on the face of social peace and harmony.
(5) For winning an election, it has been seen that candidates/ parties distribute money and liquor among some sections of voters to influence them. Some candidates/parties in power use government resources e.g., manpower, vehicles in their election campaigns.

Question 5.
Explain .any three minimum conditions which are required for democratic elections. (2012-1078, 48005, 14, 23, 25)
Describe any five ideal democratic conditions for election. (2017-9XHHRS2)
Or
Describe any five minimum conditions required for a democratic election. (2016-ECHS79F)
Answer:
Following are the minimum conditions which are required to make election democratic :
(1) Everyone should be able to choose his/her representative. Everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value.
(2) There should be something to choose from. Parties and candidates should offer choice to voters.
(3) The choice should be offered at regular intervals. Elections must be held regularly after every few years.
(4) The candidate preferred by the people should get elected.
(5) Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner, where people can choose as they really wish.

Question 6.
Explain the importance of elections in a democratic (2012-48032)
Or
What makes an election democratic ? Explsiin. (2016-C66GL67)
Or
Describe the need for elections in democracy. (2016-9AGOTXP; 201 5-3UWGAAX)
Answer:
In a democratic country, elections are important because:
(1) In a modern democracy, people can’t take part in the administration directly. Only their representatives can perform this – function. So, to choose them, election is a must. It provides opportunities to the people to elect the representatives of their choice to run the government.
(2) It is not possible for everyone to have the time and knowledge to take decisions on all matters.
(3) In an election, the voters can choose who will make laws for them, who will form the government and take major decisions, and the party whose policies will guide the government and law-making process.

3.2 What Is Our System Of Elections ?

1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)

Question 1.
Identify the election which is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member :
(a) By-election
(b) General election
(c) Mid term election
(d) Lok Sabha election
Answer:
(a) By-election r

Question 2.
What is the tenure of Lok Sabha or Vidhan Sabha?
(a) 3 years
(b) 5 years
(c) 7 years
(d) 9 years
Answer:
(b) 5 years

Question 3.
The boundaries of a constituency is decided on the basis of : (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 34/A1)
(a) Population
(b) Culture
(c) Language
(d) Number of villages
Answer:
(a) Population

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

3/5 Marks Questions

Question 4.
What is meant by a Reserved Constituency ? Explain the special system of reserved constituencies for the weaker sections in India. (2016-4JMQMA8, M5MZ7SB)
Or
Why did the makers of Indian Constitution provide us with a system of reserved constituencies ? Explain. (CBSE, 2011-SA2, 25/A1)
Or
What are reserved constituencies ? Explain the concept of ‘reservation of seats’ by giving any three suitable arguments. (CBSE, 2011-SA2, 12/BI)
Answer:
(1) (i) When any constituency is reserved for the people belonging to the weaker sections of society i.e., SCs, STs, OBCs, such a constituency is known as Reserved Constituency.
(ii) That is why, some constituencies are reserved for people who belong to the SCs, STs, OBCs.
(iii) In a SC reserved constituency, only someone who belongs to the Scheduled Castes can fight election.
(2) (i) Our Constitution-makers were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.
(ii) They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against others. Those who are influential and resourceful may prevent them from winning elections.

Question 5.
Why slogans are used by political party 2 Mention any four successful slogans given by different political parties in various elections. (2016-I57JLCY)
Or
Write any three, famous slogans which were given by different political parties in various elections. (2016-VYH1TDB; 2015-TRAL16U; 2014-BJ3MSNM)
Or
Mention any three slogans used by different political parties at the time of election and the purpose behind them.
Answer:
(1) Slogans are used by political parties to focus public attention on some big issues. TJiey want to attract the public attention to that issue and get them to vote for their party on that basis.
(2) These are the various successful slogans given by different political parties in various elections :
(1) Garibi Hatao (Remove Poverty) : This slogan was given by Smt. Indira Gandhi led the Congress Party in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971.
(ii) Save Democracy : This slogan was given by Janata Party in the next Lok Sabha elections held in 1977. The party promised to undo the excesses committed during Emergency and restore civil liberties.
(iii) Land to the Tiller : The Left Front used this slogan in the West Bengal Assembly elections held in 1977.
(iv) Protect the Self-Respect of the Telugus : This slogan was used by N.T. Rama Rao, the leader of the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh Assembly elections,1 in 1983.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

Question 6.
How does election campaigning take place in India? Explain. (2016-ONEOSIT)
Or
Describe the process of campaigning in election in India. (2016-3N8J6MA)
Or
Describe the various methods of election campaign used by political parties. (2017-UZMOOWO, I55FHZ0)
Answer:
(1) In our country, election campaigns take place for a two- week period between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling.
(2) During this period, the candidates contact thpir voters, political leaders address election meetings and political parties mobilise their supporters.
(3) This is also the period when newspapers and television news are full of election related stories and debates.

Question 7.
Describe how elections are held in India ? (2016-VYH1TDB; 2015-K4YKDRX)
Or
Describe the various stages of electroal process of India. (2017-DHGU1DB)
Answer:
(1) In our country, we follow an area based system of representation. The country is divided into different areas for election purposes. These areas are called constituencies. Our Constitution- makers thought of a special system of reserved constituencies for the weaker sections. 84 seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes and 47 for the Scheduled Tribes.
(2) Once the constituencies are decided, the next step is to
decide who can and who cannot vote. The list, of those who are eligible to vote, is prepared much before the election and given to everyone.
(3) Then different candidates fill their nomination papers in the election. Then, ballot papers are printed.
(4) Then begins the campaigning for different candidates which includes postering, meetings, speeches, processions and house-to- house convassing.
(5) Then on the specific day, the voting is held on the basis of the secret ballot EVMs. After voting, the ballot boxes or EVMs are sealed and taken to the counting centres. There, the votes are counted and soon the result is declared.
(6) If any candidate is not satisfied with the election results, he/ she can go to the court of law to redress his/her complaint.

Question 8.
Describe the need for reserved constituencies for SCs and STs. {Most Imp.)
Or
Examine the need for reserved constituencies in India. (2016-4JMQMA8)
Or
Describe the system of representation for reserved constituencies in India. (2016-1W84B6K; 2014-RSY8S5J)
Or
Why did the makers of the Constitution make provision for the reserved constituencies for the weaker sections ? Give any three reasons. (2016-TWKZ96R)
Answer:
(1) The constitution-makers were worried that certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.
(2) The weaker sections may not have required resources and education to contest and win election against others.
(3) Those who are influential and resourceful may prevent them from winning elections.
(4) Our Parliament and Assemblies would be deprived of the voice of a significant section of our population.
(5) If they do not contest and, win elections, our democracy will become less representative and less democratic.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

Question 9.
According to our election laws, what should be in mind during the election compaign ? (2017-BZ2M8VD; 2016, 2015-TPK9SCB; 2014-OHFEKWR, FPDBG5G-A)
Or
In your opinions, which five norms should parties follow for campaigning ? (2016-U51G8YW)
Answer:
(1) It is necessary to regulate campaign to ensure that every political party and candidate gets a fair and equal chance to compete.
(2) According to our election laws, no party or candidate can bribe or threaten voters to cast votes in its favour.
(3) Any party or candidate can not appeal to voters to cast their votes in the name of caste or religion.
(4) The party or candidates can not use any of the government resources like vehicles, officials, etc.-for election campaigns.
(5) No party or candidate can spend more than a fixed amount i.e., ? 25 lakhs for a Lok Sabha constituency election and ? 10 lakhs for a constituency in an Assembly election.

Question 10.
What system of declaration has been introduced on direction from the Supreme Court regarding nomination of candidate in election ? (2016-HDLKF8K; 2014-5VFPCTZ)
Or
What legal declarations are required by every candidate at the time of nomination ? What is its implication ?
(2016-J9J1XV4)
Answer:
Following are the legal declarations to be made by every candidate at the time of filing nomination as per direction of the Supreme Court :
(1) Serious criminal cases pending against the candidates.
(2) Details of the assets and liabilities of the candidate and his or her family.
(3) Educational qualifications of the candidates.

Question 11.
Describe the activities that take place in and outside an election booth on the election day. (2012-48038)
Or
What happens on the day of election outside and inside the polling booth ? Describe. (2012-48011)
Or
Describe the procedure of ybting on the polling day. (2016-FGELOX2; 2014-K901RGL)
Answer:
(1) On the election day, every person whose name is on the voters’ list, goes to the nearby polling booth.
(2) The voter goes inside the booth where the election officers identify her/him, put a mark on her/his finger and allow him/her to cast vote.
(3) Now-a-days Electronic Voting Machine (EVMs) are used to record votes. The machine shows the names of the candidates and the party symbols. The voter has to press the button against the name of the candidate he/she wants to give her/his vote.
(4) An agent of every party sits inside the booth to see that election takes place smoothly and in a fair way.
(5) Outside the booth, representatives of various parties/ candidates have their own stalls to help the voters and indirectly win them over.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

3.3. What Makes Elections In India Democratic ?

1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)

Question 1.
When government officers work in election duty, they work under the control of:
(a) The Government
(b) The Election Commission
(c) The Parliament
(d) The Judiciary (2011-CBSE-SA II, 06/BI)
Answer:
(b) The Election Commission

Question 2.
Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner in India?
(a) The Chief Justice of India ;
(b) The Prime Minister of India
(c) The President of India
(d) The People of India (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 11/A1, Bl, 21/BI, 29/A1; 2012-48004, 17, 38)
Answer:
(c) The President of India

Question 3.
In our country, elections are conducted by an independent and powerful body which is known as :
(а) Election Commission
(b) Parliament
(c) Judiciary
(d) Lok Sabha (2011-CBSE-SA-II, 16/BI; 2012-48029)
Answer:
(a) Election Commission

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

3/5 Marks Questions

Question 4.
Describe any five challenges to free and fair elections in India. (2016-BU8ZC5G; 2015-9L9UG72; 2014-BJ3MSNM)
Or
Write any three challenges to free and fair elections in India. (2016-8SPAMB2)
Answer:
Following are the limitations and challenges faced by electoral system :
(1) Candidates and parties with a lot of money have an unfair advantage over the smaller parties and independent candidates.
(2) These days, many of the political parties use to give tickets to the candidates having criminal records.
(3) These days some parties have the dominance of political families within the parties. People from such political families often give party tickets to their relatives.
(4) Small political parties and independent candidates have many disadvantages as compared to bigger parties.
(5) Major political parties have quite similar polices, ideologies and practices. This leaves little choice for people to choose from.
(б) During elections, money and muscle powers are frequently used.
(7) The parties in power are often seen to use governmental facilities and resources.

Question 5.
What are the various malpractices used by a party or the candidates to increase their votes ? (2G14-U8RJYPE)
Or
Describe some unfair practices that take place during elections. – (2016-0NEOSIT)
Ans. Following are the unfair practices which are adopted during elections :
(1) Booth capturing : Supporters or hired muscle-men of party or a candidate gain physical control of a polling booth and cast false votes by threatening everyone or by preventing genuine voters from reaching the polling booth.
(2) Rigging : Sometimes, a party or candidate is involved in fraud and malpractices to stay ahead of the others. It includes stuffing ballot boxes by a few persons using the votes of others, recording multiple votes by the same person; and bribing or coercing polling officers to favour a candidate.
(3) Luring the voters : At times, day before the election is conducted, a party or candidate distributes money and liquor among the voters to obtain their favour on the day of election.
(4) Caste/Religion based sentimental appeals : At times, the candidates appeal to the voters in the name of caste and religion. \ Such appeals, sometimes, have been seen to work. This lessens the quality of democratic elections.
(5) Use of government resources : Many a times, it has been seen that the party in power uses various government resources in the elections.

UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Constitutional Design

Question 6.
Describe the functions of Election Commission in India. (2016-3N8J6MA; 2015-03QP146; 2014-S07NVMW)
Or
Discuss the powers of the Election Commission (EC) in India.
Or
What are the main functions of Election Commission of India ? (Annual Exam. (Delhi), 2009)
Or
Describe any four functions of the Election Commission of India. (CBSE, 2011-SA2, 21/A1; -2016-34VZNST, 2015-5N529A1; i 2014-6U6BVEU; 2012-48010, 15)
Answer:
(1) The Election Commission of India is an independent and very powerful body. It is responsible to conduct free and fair elections in India. Once appointed, the Chief Election Commissioner is not answerable to the President or the government.
(2) Election Commission takes decision on every aspect of conducting and controlling the election procedures in India.
(3) It implements Model Code of Conduct which all the political  parties and candidates have to follow during elections.
(4) During the election, the Election Commission can order the government to follow certain guidelines to prevent use and misuse of governmental power and resources.
(5) When on election duty, government officers work under the control of the Election Commission and not the government.

Question 7.
What is the outcome of free and fair elections held in India ? (2015-ZR2FYVG; 2014-ZZ-95-9800)
Or
Analyse the trends of the outcomes of elections in India. (2017-4AB4OA7)
Or
Describe the importance of outcomes of elections in India. (2017-9XR1LOH, 2HWXTNU)
Answer:
Outcomes of India’s elections justify the statement in the following ways:
(1) The ruling parties routinely lose elections in India both at the national and state levels. In fact, in every two out of the three elections held in the last fifteen years, the ruling party lost.
(2) Candidates who are known to have spent a lot of money on ‘buying votes’ and those with known criminal connections often lose ‘ elections.
(3) Barring very few disputed elections, the electoral outcomes
are usually accepted as ‘people’s verdict’ by defeated party.
(4) It is very common now for the Election Commission to reprimand the government and administration for their lapses.
(5) People participate in it with enthusiasm.



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